• India has been a distinct geographical and geopolitical unit since ancient times. 
  • Bounded by the young folded mountains in the north-west, north and north-east and washed by the waters of the Indian ocean in the south, India occupies the most important part of the south Asian realm. 
  • India is the only country after which an ocean has been named, that is Indian Ocean. 
  • This region may gain geopolitical and geoeconomic importance in the near future, it organised on the pattern of Asia-pacific region or European Economic Community. 

Size and Shape

  • India is the seventh largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, China, USA. Brazil and Australia.
  • India commands a total geographical area of 32,87,263 square km. which is roughly 0.57 per cent of the area of the earth and 2.4 per cent of the total area of the land. This is 2.4 per cent of the total area of the land. 
  • This 2.4 per cent of the land area is occupied by 16 per cent of the world population making India second most populous country in the world. 
  • India has roughly a quadrangular shape. 
  • It measures about 3214 km, from north to south and about 2933 km from east to west. So, the north-south extent is 281 km more than the cast-west extent. 


  • India lies in the northern and eastern hemisphere of the globe between 8°4' north and 37°6' north latitudes and 68°7'east and 97°25' east longitudes.
  • Infact the southernmost extent goes up to 6°45' north latitude to cover the last island known as Pygmalion point or Indira point. 
  • With almost 30° of longitudinal extent the country may be divided into two zones but India has adopted only one standard meridian that is 82°30' cast longitude to determine Indian Standard Time (5 ½  hours ahead of G.M.T.). 
  • The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into two equal halves—the southern halves falling under the Torrid Zone and the northern halves forming a sub-tropical zone. 
  • India's neighbours include Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the cast. 
  • In the south narrow Palk Strait separates the Indian mainland from Sri Lanka. 
  • The total land frontier of India is 15200 km. T.- India has a mainland coastline of 6100 km. and total coastline 7516 km. (including the coastline of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands.)