Tropical Rain Forest/Equatorial Climate 

  • Prevails mainly between 10° N and 10° S of equator 
  • Found in the Amazon lowlands (S. America), Congo Basin (Africa), Mada-gaskar and East Indies (from Sumatra to New Guinea). 
  • Rainfall mostly convectional occurs throughout the year. 
  • Annual rainfall is about 200 cm, though some regions get heavier rains. 
  • Climate is consistently moist with no month recording less than 6 cm of rainfall. 
  • Mean monthly temperature ranges between 24° and 27°C. 
  • Annual ranges of temperature commonly less than 2° to 3°C. 
  • Diurnal range of temperature is more, i.e. 6° to 8°C.
  • A region of great biodiversity — abundance of flora and fauna. 
  • Diseases and insects, harsh climate and dense forests pose hindrance to economic development. 

Tropical Monsoon Climate 

  • Within the tropics in the eastern sides of the continents. 
  • Spreads over South, South-East and East Asia (India, Myanmar, South China) and Northern Australia.
  • Dominant characteristics — complete reversal of prevailing wind direc-tion from season to season coastline 7516 km. (including the coastline of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands). 
  • Average annual rainfall about 150 cm. 
  • Rainfall highly erratic, mainly in summer season.
  • Average temperature of summer is 30°C and of winter is 15°C. 
  • A distinct dry season (in winter) one or more months with rain less than 6 cm. 
  • Forests are rich in Sal, Teak, Shisham & Bamboo. 

Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Sudan Climate 

  • Found between 5° and 15° North and South. 
  • Transitional zone between the equatorial & monsoon on the one hand and arid & semi-arid climates on the other. 
  • Found in Africa (north & south of Equatorial belt), East-Central South America (Lianos in Columbian Highland, Campas in Brazil), Northern Australia and some parts of India (man-induced). 
  • High temperature throughout the year. 
  • Average annual temperature is more than 25°C. 
  • High summer temperature around 32°C while winter temperature is about 21°C. 
  • Annual range of temperature 11°C. 
  • A distinct dry season in winter when the region comes under the influence of trade winds. 
  • Average annual rainfall around 75 cm, rainfall mainly in summer (mainly of convectional type). 
  • Natural vegetation comprises toll grasses with scattered trees, called 'Park-land Vegetation'.

Dry Tropical (Desert) Climate 

  • Found on the western margins of continents along the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. 
  • Chief regions are Sahara desert (Africa), Great Australian Desert, Arabian, Iranian and Thar Desert in Asia, Kalahari & Namib Desert (Africa), Mo-hava Desert in North America and Atacama Desert in South America. 
  • The main cause of aridity is their location in the sub-tropical high pressure belt and the effect of dry offshore tsade winds on the western margins of continents.
  • Mean summer temperature around 30°C and mean winter temperature about 10°C. 
  • Diurnal temperature ranges are very high—from I 5°C to 40°C. 
  • Highest temperatures have been recorded in this climate e.g. 58.7°C in Al Azizia (Libya), 58°C in Death Valley, 52°C Jacobabad (Pakistan) of Thar. 
  • Annual rainfall very low, about 12 cm, rainfall highly variable. 
  • Vegetation is of nerophytic type. 

Temperate Western Margin/Mediterranean Climate 

  • Found between 30° and 45° latitude in both the Hemisphere on the western side ot each continent. 
  • Its typical areas are around the shores of Mediterranean Sea, South-West Africa (Cape region), Central Chile, Central California and South-west and Southern Australia (Adelaide to Melbourne). 
  • Pre-dominant characteristic is dry summer and mild moist water. 
  • Summer is dry because trade winds blow offshore. 
  • But in winter the region comes under the influence of onshore westerlies due to shifting of thc pressure belts towards equator. These westerlies bring winter rainfall here. 
  • Annual rainfall varies between 50 and 75 cm. 
  • Summer temperature ranges between 20 and 27°C, while winter tempera-tures are 4° to 10°. 
  • This climate experiences hot dusty wind of Sirocco and cold winds of Mistral (France) and Bora (Yugoslavia). 
  • This climatic region is noted for its orchard farming of citrus fruits, espe-cially viticulture (grape farming).

Temperate Continental (Steppe)/Warm Temperate Interior Climate 

  • Located in the interiors of the continents due to which they do not get suf-ficient rainfall from the westerlies. 
  • Spreads over the temperate grassland regions of the world, i.c. Steppes of Eurasia, Prairies of North America, Velds of South Africa, Pampas of South America, Downs of Australia, Canterbury Grasslands of New Zea-land and Pustaz of Hungary. 
  • Warm summer with about 20°C temperature and cold winter with about 5°-1 0°C. 
  • Average annual rainfall ranges between 25cm and 75cm. 
  • Rainfall mostly in summer. 6. Grasslands are practically treeless.

Dry Mid-Latitude/Temperate Desert Climate 

  • Found between 30° and 45° latitudes in the interiors of continents. 
  • Main areas are Gobi, Tibet, Mangolia and Turkistan in Central Asia, Pata-gonia in South America. 
  • Diurnal ranges of temperature upto 50°C. 
  • Annual range of temperature is low (high). 
  • Rainfall scanty, about 12 cm. 
  • Main cause of aridity is interior location or inter-montane location. 

Warm Temperate Eastern Margin/China Type Climate 

  • Found on the eastern margin of continents between 25° and 45°N and S. 
  • Chief regions are Eastern & Central China, S.E. America and South East-ern parts of Africa and Australia, S. Brazil and S. Japan. 
  • Average summer temperature is 26°C while average wintcr temperature is 13°C. 
  • 70 per cent or more of the mean annual rainfall in wanner six months. 
  • Wannest month of summer has at least 10 times the precipitation of the driest month of winter. Average annual rainfall is 100 cm. 
  • Pampero (Argentina) & Southerly Buster (Australia) are cold local winds blowing in this climate. 
  • Tropical cyclones e.g. Typhoons (S. China) & Hurricanes (S.E. USA) are common in summer. 
  • Normally mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests are found.

Cool Temperate Western Margin/West European Climate  

  • Prevails along the western margins of continents between 45° and 60° latitudes in both the hemispheres. 
  • Representative areas are N-W Europe, Western Canada, Southern Chile, Southern Island of NewZealand and Tasmania. 
  • Rainfall throughout the year, but more in winter. 
  • The region comes under the permanent westerly winds which blow from the oceans keeping the climate moist throughout the year. 
  • Total annual rainfall — 100 cm, rainfall mainly cyclonic. 
  • Mean winter temperature is 5°C while that of summer is 15°C. 
  • The annual temperature ranges are not high. i.e. 80 degrees C to 110 degrees C caused by the combined effect of warm ocean currents (North Atlantic and N. Pacific Drifts) and winds. 
  • Both deciduous and coniferous forests are found.  

Cool Temperate Continental/Taiga Climate 

  • Extends from 45° to 70° latitude in Northern Hemisphere. 
  • From Alaska to New Found Land in North America and from Norway to Kamchatka in Eurasia. 
  • Greatest annual rangc of temperature of over 55°C is found here. 
  • The summer temperature is around 15° to 20° while winter temperature range from –34°C in Canada to 45°C in parts of CIS. 
  • Summer is short (4-5 months) while winters are long. 
  • Annual rainfall is 25-50 cm. mostly in summer. 
  • This climate is distinct for its evergreen coniferous forest or Boreal Forest Biome. 

Tundra Climate 

  • North of 70° latitude in North America & Eurasia, coastal tract of Iceland and Greenland. 
  • Warmest month temperature is below 10°C but more than 0°C, average annual temperature is -12°C, annual range of temperature is 39° to 50°C. 
  • Mean annual precipitation, mostly in the form of snowfall, is below 40 cm. 
  • Vegetation comprises lichens & mosses supported by characteristic litho-sols of Tundra. 

Highland Climate 

  • All the mountain regions of the world above 1500 metre height. 
  • Temperature decreases with altitude, therefore vertical zonation of climate, from tropical to ice-cap type. 
  • Rainfall on windward slopes, leeward sides are dry.