Coal is found in seams of sedimentary rocks, mainly of carboniferous period. They have been formed due to submergence of natural vegetation. Coal has also been formed in the tertiary period. 

Types of Coal 

  • Anthracite: Very hard and free from impurities, carbon continent is about 90 per cent, gives little ash and smoke when burnt. Pennsylvania in USA and Donates basin of Ukraine are noted for the production of anthracite coal. 
  • Bituminous: The carbon content is 70-90 per cent. It gives more smoke while burning. It contributes about 80 per cent of world coal. 
  • Lignite/Brown Coal: Carbon' content is 45-75 per cent. It has more content of vegetation because of its formation in tertiary period. 
  • Peat: It does not have industrial importance because of its high moisture content. It represents the first stage of coal formation.

World Distribution of Coal 

  • China: Shansi, Shensi, Inner-Mongolia, Fenhe valley, Henan, etc. 
  • USA: Pennsylvania (Anthracite field contributing 50 per cent of world's anthracite production). Appalachian-bituminous field, largest coal region of USA. 
  • CIS: Donbas region (Ukraine), Kuzbas (Russia), Karaganda (Kazakh-stan), 
  • UK: Northumber Land, Durham, Yokshire, Midland 
  • Germany: Ruhr, Westphalia region, Saar coat-field, Scxony 
  • France: Alsace, Saar region 
  • Poland: Siberia valley 
  • Australia: New South Wales (largest coal producing region in the South-ern Hemisphere)


Petroleum has been formed through the disintegration of the remains of vegetation and organisms. 

  • USA: Mid continental region, Gulf coastal region (southern Texas, Lousiana), California region, Appalachian region and Alaska. 
  • Mexico: Tampico and Tuxpan in the Gulf region. 
  • Venezuela: Lake Maracaibo & Orinoco valley. 
  • Former USSR: Volga-Ural region (largest oil field). Cremea Caucasus region (Baku oil field in Azerbaizan), Grozny in Georgia, East Caspian region, Sakhalin Island, Eastern Siberia 
  • Saudi Arabia: Dharan, Abquiq, Ghawar, Thunman, Abu-Safaj, etc. 
  • Iraq: Kirkuk, Mosul. Rumaliya. Basra 
  • Kuwait; Bargan, Rudhtan 
  • Iran: Masjid-e-Sulaiman, Gach Saran, Marun, Aghazari, Nafat, Lali, etc. 
  • Indonesia: Sumatra and Barnet). Other areas include North Sca region in Europe, Damborija valley in Rumania, etc.

Natural Gas 

  • It occurs either with petroleum oil or independently. 
    Producing regions: CIS-Western Siberia, Northern Causcasus, Fargana valley, etc. 

Nuclear Energy 


Australia has the largest reserve of Uranium followed by S. Africa, Nigeria, Brazil, Canada and USA.

  • Canada: Uranium city on the northern coast of lake Athabaska, Port Radium and Beaverlodge near Great Bear lake.
  • USA: Colorado Plateau
  • CIS: Tuya-Mayaum, Majlisay, Tarshan, Tarak region in Siberia
  • Australia: Port Darwin region, Mary-Kethleen
  • South Africa: Witwatersrand
  • Japan: Tobo 


  • Monazite is the most important source of Thorium. The largest reserve of Thori-um in the world is found in India in the Malabar coast of India (Kerala) and Tamil Nadu coast. Other producers of Thorium are USA (Montana. North California, etc.) Brazil, Australia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. 

Hydro Electricity 

  • USA is the largest producer of hydro-power in the world. The develop-ment of hydro-power has taken place in the following areas:
    (i) Fall line region along the Atlantic coast;
    (ii) Niagra waterfall region;
    (iii) Tenessey valley &
    (iv) Appalachian region. 
  • Congo River of Africa has the largest hydro-power potential in the world. 
  • Hydro-electricity contributes 99 per cent to Norway (highest). 
  • Norway and Sweden have highest per capita production of electricity in the world.