Types of Fish
Fishes are obtained both from oceans and freshwater bodies of the world. Fishes obtained from oceans are classified into the following two categories :
- Pelagic Fishes
Tuna, Salmand, Herring, Mackarel, Sardine, Pilcard, etc., are example of Pelagic fishes which are found near the surface of water since these fishes need light for their living.
- Demersal Fishes
These fishes are found in the depths of the sea, where light and temperature of water are greatly reduced. Cod, Halibut, Flounders, Hadcock, etc., are examples of these fishes. These fishes are not found in groups.
Important regions of marine fisheries in the world are following :
- North-West Atlantic Region
This region extends from Long island in the south of New Foundland in the north. Continental shelves of this region are very wide where Grand Bank, Georges Bank and St. Peare Bank are famous for pisiculture. Chease-peak Bay situated in this region is famous for oyster farming, and the southern part is noted for prawn culture.
- North-East Atlantic Region
It extends from the Arctic Circle in the north to the boundary of Spain and Portugal in the south. Wide continental shelf, indented and long coastline, and lack of agricultural land in the coastal areas are favourable factors for the developments of fishing industry in this region. Doggar Bank situated in the North Sea is a famous fishing ground of this region. Norway is the leading fishing nation of this region, where cod and herring fishes are caught.
- North-West Pacific Region
This region extends between the Bening Sea in the north and the Philippines Sea in the south.
Apart from the abovementioned fishing regions, North-East Pacific Region, coastal areas along Peru, Argentina, Brazil, South Africa, and Indonesia arc important fishing regions in the world.
i. Largest catch of fishes is obtained from the Pacific Ocean, followed by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
ii. China is the leading producer of marine fishes in the world. Peru, Japan, Chile, and USA follow.
iii. China also leads in the production of fresh water fishes, followed by India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. > Japan is the largest producer of whales in the world, followed by Nor-way.
iv. 90 per cent of the production of Anchovish fishes in the world comes from Peru.
v. The development of Pearl Fisheries has taken place in the tropical oceans. It is developed in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Mannar.