Presently 30 per cent area of the landmass is covered by forests. One-third of the total forest area is covered by coniferous forests, and two-thirds of total forests are broad-leaved forests.
Equatorial Rain Forests
- These forests arc found in the Zaire (Congo) Basin, Amazon Basin, and in the equatorial regions of Malaysia and Indonesia.
- These forests are called 'Selves' in the Amazon Basin.
- These forests are very dense due to high temperature and high amount of rainfall occurring in this region.
- Broad-leaved evergreen trees of hardwood variety are common including Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, Cedar, Rubber, Palm, Cinchona, etc.
- Occurrence of trees of different species having no pure stands, lack of transportation, inaccessibility, unhealthy climate, marshy tract, high den-sity of trees, etc., are major problems.
- Largest expanse of equatorial forests is found in the Amazon Basin.
Monsoonal Deciduous Forests
- These forests are found in the monsoonal climatic regions of India, South-East Asia, and North-East Australia.
- The usual species of these forests include Sal, Teak, Sisham and Bamboos which yield valuable woods from economic point of view.
- Exploitation of these forests is easy since these are not very dense.
Temperate Deciduous Forests of Hardwood Trees
- These forests are found in central and western Europe, North-Eastern Part of America, southern part of Russia, China, Japan, Korea, etc.
- Oak, Birch, Maple, Walnut, Elm, Chestnut, etc., are found in these forests.
Temperate Coniferous Forests of Softwood Trees
- These forests, also called Boreal, are found mainly between 50° and 70° N latitudes.
- Occur mainly in Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia.
- Trees are mostly evergreen, exception being larch which is deciduous.
- About 45 per cent of coniferous forests of the world are found in Russia which is called 'Taiga' there.