WORLD FORESTRY 

Presently 30 per cent area of the landmass is covered by forests. One-third of the total forest area is covered by coniferous forests, and two-thirds of total forests are broad-leaved forests. 

Equatorial Rain Forests 

  • These forests arc found in the Zaire (Congo) Basin, Amazon Basin, and in the equatorial regions of Malaysia and Indonesia. 
  • These forests are called 'Selves' in the Amazon Basin. 
  • These forests are very dense due to high temperature and high amount of rainfall occurring in this region. 
  • Broad-leaved evergreen trees of hardwood variety are common including Mahogany, Ebony, Rosewood, Cedar, Rubber, Palm, Cinchona, etc. 
  • Occurrence of trees of different species having no pure stands, lack of transportation, inaccessibility, unhealthy climate, marshy tract, high den-sity of trees, etc., are major problems. 
  • Largest expanse of equatorial forests is found in the Amazon Basin.

Monsoonal Deciduous Forests 

  • These forests are found in the monsoonal climatic regions of India, South-East Asia, and North-East Australia. 
  • The usual species of these forests include Sal, Teak, Sisham and Bamboos which yield valuable woods from economic point of view. 
  • Exploitation of these forests is easy since these are not very dense. 

Temperate Deciduous Forests of Hardwood Trees 

  • These forests are found in central and western Europe, North-Eastern Part of America, southern part of Russia, China, Japan, Korea, etc. 
  • Oak, Birch, Maple, Walnut, Elm, Chestnut, etc., are found in these forests.

Temperate Coniferous Forests of Softwood Trees 

  • These forests, also called Boreal, are found mainly between 50° and 70° N latitudes. 
  • Occur mainly in Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia. 
  • Trees are mostly evergreen, exception being larch which is deciduous. 
  • About 45 per cent of coniferous forests of the world are found in Russia which is called 'Taiga' there.