Iron Ore 

  • Magnetite : 72 per cent iron content, black colour 
  • Haematite : 70 per cent iron content, generally of red colour. Most of the iron found in the world is of haematite type. 
  • Limonite : 60 per cent iron content. 
  • Siderite : Lowest category; less than 50 per cent iron content.
  • Producing regions: 
    1. USA
    2. CIS
    3. Canada
    4. China
    5. France
    6. Sweden
    7. Brazil 8. Australia
  • Other Areas: Spain (Bilbao), Germany (Salzgitter, Siegerland), Venezuela (low-er Orinoco valley). Chile (altofo, La Sarena), Liberia (Bomi hills). South Africa (Transual. Cape region). Japan (Murora).
  • Reserves of Iron Ore: CIS, India, USA, Brazil. 


Producing Regions

  • China: Sikiang Valley
  • CIS: Nickopol (Ukraine), Chaitura (Georgia, about 90 per cent).
  • South Africa: Postmassbergy; Brazil-Minas Geras, India, Gabon, Ghana, Australia, etc are., other important producers. 


Producing Regions

  • Chile: Chuquicamata, El- Teniete
  • USA: Butte region (western part)
  • Canada (Sadbury region, Flin-flon)
  • Zaire: Katanga region (Kishansa, Musonai etc)
  • Australia: Mt. Ira & Tamania, Zimbabwe, India, Yugoslavia, South Africa, etc., are other major producers of copper. Chuquicamata mine of

Chile is world's largest mine. Famous Katanga region is spread over Zaire & Zambia in a 500 km long belt. 


Producing Regions

  • Cape York Peninsula of Australia (Weipa & Amhamland), Jamica (St. Marry), Guinea, Ghana, Brazil, Greece, India, Yugoslavia, etc., are major producers of Bauxite. The largest reserves of bauxite in the world are found in Australia. 


Producing Regions

  • India: Jharkhand (Kodarma, Giridih), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore) and Ra-jasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara).
  • Brazil: Santalucia, other countries are south Africa, USA, as, Zambia, etc. Importance of natural rubber has declined due to emergence of artifi-cial mica in the world. 


  • Tin is mainly found as a placer deposit. These are four major areas of tin produc-tion in the world :
    (i) South-East Asia,
  • (ii) Bolivian Plateau
  • (iii) Western Part of Central Africa
  • (iv) CIS.


  • Malaysia: Kinta Valley, Kelong Valley, Perak, etc.
  • Indonesia: Bangka, Biliton, Singkep.
  • Thailand: Southern region (Phuket, Kra Peninsula).
  • Bolivia: Potasi.
  • CIS: Around Lake Baikal.
  • Nigeria: Bauchi Plateau, Jos plateau.
  • Zaire: Katanga region.
  • China: Yunnan Plateau, Kwangri.


  • Gold is a precious metal found in the veins of rocks and as a placer deposit. 


  • South Africa: Witwatersrand, Transvaal, Johannesberg. 
  • CIS: Lena river placer deposit. 
  • Canada: Flin Flon. 
  • Australia: Kalgoorlie, Kulgardee. 

    Other important producing countries are Zaire, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Gabon, Peru, Mexico, India, and USA (Yukon river valley, Colorado, Arizona, Utah). 


  • Silver generally occurs along with Lead, Zinc & Copper.


  • Mexico: Chihuahua mines.
  • USA: Idaho & Utah.
  • Canada: Ontario (Sadbury region), British Columbia.
  • CIS: Atlai region.
  • Peru: Cerro-depasco.
  • Myanmar: Badween (largest Asian Silver producer). 



  • Australia: Broken hill and Mt. Ira.
  • Canada: British Columbia, Sulivan.
  • CIS: East Kazakhstan.
  • USA: Butte region. 


  • Sulvian mine of British Columbia in Canada is the largest producing region of zinc in the world. Broken hill and Mt. Ira of Australia are other noted regions of zinc production. 


  • Sadbury region (Ontario) of Canada is world-famous for the production of Nickel. Kola peninsula of Russia, Mayurbhanj and Cuttack (Orissa) of India are other important regions of nickel production. 


  • Zaire is the leading producer of cobalt in the world. USA, Canada, CIS, New Calcedonia, etc., are other important producing regions.


  • The continent of Africa has pre-dominant position in the production of diamonds. South Africa (Kimberley) is the leading gems stone producer in the world, while Zaire (Bakawanga) leads in the production of industrial diamonds (borts). Bost-wana, Sicrra Lconc, Liberia, Angola, Tanzania, etc., are other important producers. Antwerp, Amsterdom, Hague, London, New York, Paris, Johanesberg, Surat, Jaipur, etc., are noted diamond cutting and polishing centres. 


  • It is a precious metal whose melting point is very high. Largest reserve of platinum is found in the countries of CIS, but Canada is the largest producer of platinum in the world. CIS, South Africa, USA, and Australia are other important producers.