• Waterways, roadways and airways are chief modes of transportation avail-able. Among these water transport is the cheapest one. 
  • Cargo on international level is mainly transported through the waterways. Ships moving on the fixed route are called cargo liner. 
  • Mostly the oceanic routes follow the path of Great Circles because a great circle represent the shortest distance between two places. 

North Atlantic Waterway: This is the busiest and most important water way in the world which links Western Europe to North America. Major ports on this route are London, Liverpool, Flasgow, Southampton, Bristal, Hamburg, Rot-terdam, Antwerp, New York. Boston, Philadelphia, New Orieans. Quebec, Montreal. etc. 

Suez Canal Water Way: This important canal joining Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea was constructed in 1869. Northern gateway of this canal is formed by Port Said and Southern gate way by the Suez port. 
Cape of Good Hope Water Way: The importance of this route has declined after the opening up of Suez Canal. The trade between West and South Africa and Australia- New Zealand is carried through this route. 

North Pacific Waterway: This route joins western coast of North America with the ports of Far East.

Panama Canal Waterway: This canal constructed in 1914 joins Atlantic ocean with the ports of Far east. 

Inland Waterway 

  • Rivers like Rhine, Seine, ELb and the Canals joining them make important waterways in Europe. 
  • Rhine river of Europe is the busiest river of the world in terms of cargo transport. 
  • Volga system of CIS is an important inland waterway there.
  • In North America, an important waterway is formed by the Great Lakes, St. Lowrance river, Ohio river system and Mississippi river system. 

Important Canals 

  • Kiel Canal: Joins North Sea with Baltic Sea
  • Soo Canal: Joins Lakc Superior with Lakc Huron (USA)
  • Welland Canal: Joins Lake Erie & Ontario (USA)
  • Erie Canal: Joins Lake Eric & Michigan (USA)
  • Manchester Canal: Joins Manchester & Isthum in U.K.
  • Gots Canal: Between Stockholm & Gotcbcrg (Sweden)
  • Stallin Canal: Between Rostov & Stalingrad (called Don-volga canal)
  • New Waterway: Joins Amsterdam with North Sea
  • Rhine-main-Danube waterway: Join North sea with Black sea.