After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, a war of succession started amongst his three surviving sons Muazzam, the governor of Kabul, Azam the Governor of Gujarat and Kam Baksh, the Governor of Bijapur.
Muzzam defeated both Azam at Jajua and Kam Baksh near Hyderabad and ascended the Mughal throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. He was also known as Shah Alam I.
He adopted a more tolerant attitude towards the Hindus. The Jaziya was withdrawn and the independence of Mewar and Marwar was acknowl-edged.
He released Shahu.
He gave a high mansab to Guru Govind Singh. Banda Bahadur rebelled. During the course of his campaign against Banda he died in 1712.
The Mughal historian Khafi Khan gave him the title of Shah-i-Bekhabar.
Jahandar Shah won the war of succession due to the support of Zulfiqar Khan, the most powerful Iranian noble of the time. Jahandar Shah was the first puppet ruler in Mughal India.
Zulfiqar Khan introduced the evil practice of revenue farming or Ijarah.
Jai Singh of Amber was given the title of Mirza Raja Sawai and Ajit Singh was awarded the title of Maharaja, Shahu was granted the chauth and sardeslunukhi of Deccan.
Lal Kanwar, Jahandar Shah's favourite lady dominated the court.
Jahandar Shah was defeated by Farrukhsiyar at Agra in 1713.
Kanwar Khan has described his reign in these worlds 'the Owl dwelt in the Eagle's nest and the Crow took the place of the Nightingale'.
Farrukhsiyar came to the throne with the help of the Saiyed brothers. He appointed Saiyad Abdullah Khan as Wazir and Hussain All Khan as Mir Bakshi. Zulfiqar Khan was murdered.
Banda Bahadur, the Sikh leader was executed in Delhi.
In 1717, the Emperor heedlessly granted to the East India Company many trading privileges including the exemption from custom duties for its trade through Bengal.
Hussain Ali made a settlement with Balaji Vishwanath by which he made many concessions to the Maratha in return of their active armed assistance in the struggle for supremacy going on in Delhi.
In 1719, the Saiyad brothers with the help of Maratha troops killed Far-rukhsiyar.
Saiyad brothers abolished Jaziya completely and the pilgrim's tax was also abolished from a number of places.
After Farrukhsiyar, Saiyad brothers placed Rafi-ud-Darjat on the throne but he died within four months.
He was replaced by Rafi-ud-daulaha in 1719. He was given the title Shah-jahan II.
Mohammad Shah (1719-48) or Roshan Akhtar ascended the throne with the help of Saiyad brothers.
Hussain Ali was murdered and Abdullah Khan was made prisoner.
Nizam-ul-mulk set up an autonomous state in Deccan; Saadat Khan carved out a state for himself in Avadh; while Murshid Quli Khan became virtually independent in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
In 1739, Nadir Shah invaded India.
Ahmad Shah Abdali raided the kingdom for the first time during his reign.
His addiction to wine and women got him the nickname `Rangeela'.
Ahmad Shah was born to Muhammad shah through a dancing girl Udham Bain. Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded Delhi many times and Punjab and Multan was ceded to them. The Maratha snatched Malwa and Bundelkhand. His wazir Imad-ul-mulk blinded him and placed Alamgir II on the throne.
Azizuddin took the title of Alamgir II. He was murdered by his wazir 'mad-ul-m ulk.
Prince All Gauhar took the title of Shah Alam-II. He crowned himself under Shujauddaullah's protection at Gathauli in Bihar. Another prince Shahjahan III was placed on the throne of Delhi.
Shah Alam had to remain in exile for 12 years. He was defeated by British in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar and lived for several years at Allahabad as the pensioner of East India Company. According to the Treaty of Allahabad the Emperor received the territories of Allahabad and Kara and an annual tribute of 26 lakh from Bengal.
By a firman, the emperor confirmed the English gains and granted them the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In 1803, the English captured Delhi.
During Akbar II's reign Raja Ram Mohan Roy went to England.
Bahadur Shah II was the last Mughal emperor. After the Revolt of 1857, he was deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862.
Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as Bengal's Diwan by Aurangzeb in 1700 and as subedar by Farrukhsiyar in 1717.
He transferred his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad. He established a sound administrative system, gave taqavi loans to the peasants.
He gave equal opportunities of employment to Muslim and Hindus.
Shujauddin was son in law of Murshid Quli Khan. Bihar was attached to Bengal in 1733. Now the Nawabs of Bengal ruled over Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
Sarfaraz Khan, son of Shuja was murdered by Alivardi khan, the deputy governor of Bihar.
Aivardi Khan prevented the English from misusing their privileges and prohibited them and French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandranagar respectively.
The British refused to comply with Sirajuddaullaha orders and so he or-dered and seized the factory at Kasim Bazaar and Calcutta. On this occasion, the Black hole episode happened on 20th June 1756. The description of the Black hole episode was given by Holwell.
Arrival of a strong contingent from Madras under Colonel Clive Admiral Waston, their plunder of Hoogly, and recapture of Calcutta led to a treaty between Sirajuddaullaha and the British.
According to the Treaty of Alinagar, Siraj recognized their privileges.
Soon the British organised a conspiracy with some leading men of the Nawab's court-Mirjaffar (Mir Bakshi), Manikchandra (officer in charge of Calcutta), Rai Durlabh and Khadim Khan (Important nobles), etc.
The Battle of Plassey took place on 23rd June, 1757. This battle saw the treachery of Mir Jaffar and Rai Durlabh, Mohanlal, where as Mir Madan remained loyal. Sirajuddaulah was captured and put to death by Miran, son of Mir Jaffar.
Mir Jaffar rewarded the services of English by the grant of Zamindari of 24 parganas, besides personal presents. Plassey proved a battle of far reaching consequence for the fate of India.
Mir Jaffer's reign saw the beginning of thedrain of wealth' from India to Britain.
He antagonised Raja Ram Narayan, the deputy governor of Bihar and Rai Durlabh, the Diwan.
He made futile efforts to replace the British by the Dutch but the Dutch were defeated by the British in the battle of 1759.
Mir Jaffer was replaced by Mir Qasim.
Mir Qasim granted the zamindari of Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong to the British.
He transferred his capital from Murshidbad to Monghyr.
During his reign, the Battle of Buxar was fought between the British and the three allies-Mir Qasim, Shujauddaulah of Avadh and Shah Alam 11, the Mughal emperor. This battle ended in the defeat of the allies by British forces under Hector Munro. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed with Shujauddaulah and Shah Alam H. Mir Jaffer was reinstated as Nawab of Bengal, Mir Jaffer died in 1765.
After Mir Jaffer's death, the English selected Najm-ud-daulah, his minor son as his successor. He remained a puppet in the hands of the British during the period of dual government. In 1772, he was pensioned off with the Company taking over direct charge.
Saddat Khan Burhan-ul-mulk was appointed the Governor of Awadh by emperor Mohammad Shah. Later he founded an autonomous state there in 1722.
He was summoned to Delhi at the time of Nadir Shah's invasion. In 1739 he committed suicide for some unknown reason.
Safdarjung succeeded Saadat Khan and was simultaneously appointed the Wazir of the empire in 1748. Thus from here onwards the Nawab of Awadh came to be known as Nawab Wazir.
He made an alliance with the Maratha and also won the support of the Rajputs against the Rohillas and Bangash Pathans.
The highest post in his government was held by a Hindu, Nawab Rai.
Shujauddaulah succeeded Safdarjung as the Nawab of Awadh and wazir of the Mughal Empire.
He was involved in the Battle of Buxar and had to pay heavy indemnities to the British besides Allahabad and Kara. He concluded the Treaty of Banaras with Warren Hastings whereby Allahabad and Kara were sold to the Nawab.
He defeated the Rohillas with the help of British and annexed Rohilkhand to Awadh in 1774.
Asaf-ud-daulah concluded the Treaty of Faizabad with the British, which further increased his liabilities. He transferred his capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.
During his reign the begums of Awadh were mistreated by the Nawab Wazir with the help of Warren Hastings and huge amounts were extracted from them.
Saadat Ali signed the subsidiary treaty with Lord Wellesley in 1801, by which the Nawab was deprived of about half of his territory for the mainte-nance of the subsidiary troops. This was the first subsidiary treaty of North India.
Wazid Ali Shah was the last ruler of Awadh. Lord Dalhousie annexed Awadh in 1856 and pensioned him off to Calcutta. He was well-known for his luxurious life and his penchant for songs and music.
Nizam Ulmulk Asaf Jah's real name was Chin Qilich Khan. He founded the state of Hyderabad in 1724. The emperor Mohammad Shah granted him the title Asaf Jah.
Puranchand, a Hindu, was his Diwan.
Nizam Ali concluded the subsidiary treaty with Lord Wellesley in 1798. This was the first subsidiary alliance in India.
Nasir-ud-daulah ruled from 1829-59. In 1853 Dalhousie concerned the Nizam to cede Term' in lieu of the subsidiary amount.
Saadtullah Khan founded the autonomous state of Carnatic with Arcot as its capital. He made his nephew Dost Ali his successor without the ap-proval of his superior, the Nizam. Dost Ali was murdered by the Marathas and was succeeded by Safdar Ali.
Chanda Sahib came to the throne in 1749 by murdering Anwaruddin with the help of the French but he was also killed by the ally of the British who placed Mohammad Ali on throne in 1753.
Lord Welleseley pensioned off the last Nawab and annexed it in 1801.
Haider All began his career as a petty officer in the Mysore army. He estab-lished a modern arsenal at Dindigul with the help of the French expert. In 1761 he overthrew Nanjaraj and established his authority over the Mysore state.
In 1769, he defeated the British in the first Anglo-Mysore war. He died in 1782 in course of the second Anglo-Mysore War.
Tipu Sultan succeeded Hyder Ali. He lost the third Anglo-Mysore war and died during the course of the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799.
He gave money for the construction of the image of Goddess Sharda in the Sringeri temple after it was looted by the Marathas in 1791.
Under Ranjeet Singh of the Sukarchakia Misl, the Sikh power reached its zenith.
Ranjeet Singh established his own kingdom in 1799. Lahore was his political capital. In 1809, Ranjeet Singh had to sign the Treaty of Amritsar during the period of Lord Minto.
In 1809 when Shah Shuja (the grandson of Abdali) was ousted, Ranjeet Singh gave him support to recover the throne and took from him the famous Kohinoor diamond. He died in 1839.
After the death of Ranjeet Singh, the three rulers Kharak Singh, Nonihal Singh and Sher Singh were murdered within six years. Dalip Singh succeeded to the throne at the minor age of 5 years. During his reign the English invaded Punjab and the Treaty of Lahore was signed in 1846.
Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the British resident at Lahore. Pun-jab was annexed by Lord Dalhousie in 1849 and Dalip Singh was deposed and sent to England along with his mother Rani Jindan. Sir John Lawrence became the first chief commissioner of Punjab.
The most famous Rajput ruler of the 18th Century was Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Ambar. He founded the city of Jaipur and made it a great centre of science and art.
He built observations at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura. He drew up a set of tables entitled `Ziz Mohammad Shahi' to enable people to make astronomical observations.
Under the A mirs to the Baluchi tribe, Sind was divided into three units viz. Hyderabad, Mirpur and Khairpur; each under a separate branch of tribe.
Sind was annexed by the British in 1843, during the period of Lord Al-lenborough, and Sir Napier was appointed as the first Governor of Sind.