In the beginning, Tomars remained feudatory of Pratiharas. Afterwards they became independent.
Chauhan Vigraharaja III took the Tomars under his suzerainty.
It was founded by the Brahman minister of Shahi dynasty named Kallar in the second half of the 9th Century A.D.
In Rajatarangini, Kallar has been referred to as taliyashahr and described as one of the most powerful rulers of North India.
He shifted his capital from Kabul to Udbanda.
In late 10th Century, Jayapala became the ruler of the Hindushahi dynasty.
Jayapala, Anandapala, Trilochanpala and Bhimapala fought against Subuktigin and Mahmud, rulers of Ghazni. The kingdom was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the beginning of the 12th Century A.D.
Kingdom of Kashmir
Kalhan wrote history of Kashmir, Rajatarangini, in the 12th Century.
Naga Karkta dynasty was founded by Durlabh Vardhana. During his rule, Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir.
Lalitaditya Muktapida proved to be the most illustrious king of this dy-nasty. His main success was against Yasovarman of Kannauj. He built the famous Sun temple of Martand.
Utapala dynasty was founded by Avantivarmana. This dynasty was famous for Queen Didda who ruled between 980 and 1003 A.D.
Sangramaraja founded the Lohara dynasty.
Yadvas of Devagiri
The dynasty was founded by Bhillama. He also founded the city of Devgiri which was their capital.
His son Singhana was the greatest ruler of this dynasty and made extensive conquest in the North and South.
Kakatiyas of Warrangal
The Kakatiyas were feudatories of Chalukyas.
Rudra-III inflicted final blow on Chalukyan Taila-III and declared his independence.
Hoysalas of Dwarsamudra
The dynasty was founded by Naripakana.
King Ballal II of this dynasty declared his independence shortly after A.D. 1189 when the Chalukyan Someshwar IV was overthrown by the Yadava Bhillama V and ruled till 1220 A.D.
Pandyas of Madurai
The Pandyan power was received by Kadungon in the last quarter of the 6th Century. King Arikeshari Maravarmana extended his kingdom.
After a brief eclipse, Maravarman Sunder Pandaya revived the fortune of the Pandyas.
Jatavarman Sunder Pandya forced Rajendra Chola III to acknowledge his supremacy. He defeated the Hoysalas whose king Sorneshwar lost his life in the battle. He invaded Ceylon and captured its northern parts.
Maravarman Kulsekhara Pandya finally annexed the Chola country to his dominion.