History of Vijayanagar Empire
Sangam Dynasty (1336-1485 A.D.)
- It was founded by Harihar and Bukka in 1336 A.D. They had earlier served under the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal Prataprudra-II.
- Harihara I annexed Hoysala and Kadamba kingdoms. His wife Ganga Devi wrote Madura Vijayam.
- During the period of Bukka I the tussle with Bahamanid Sultans started. He fought with the Bahamanid Sultan Muhammad Shah I.
- Devraya I kept 10,000 Muslims in his army, being the first Vijayanagar king to do so. He faced an invasion by Firoz Shah.
- Devaraya II was known as Gajabetekara, Proudha, Devraya, etc. He wrote a commentary on Braham sutra.
- Abdur Razzaq visited his court.
Tuluva Dynasty ( 1505-56)
- The Tuluva dynasty was founded by Vira Narsimha.
- Krishnadeva Rai led a series of successful campaigns against the rebellious chiefs of Ummatur, Pratap Rudra of Orissa, Yusuf Adil Shah, and Ismail Adil Shah. He invaded Gulbarga and Bidar, restored the Bahmani sultan to the throne and assumed the title 'Yavanasthopanachrya'.
- He was known as 'Abhinava Bhoja', 'Andhra Bhoja'. He wrote Amuktamalayada in Telegu and Jambavati Kalyanam in Sanskrit.
- His court was adorned by the Astadiggajas. Pedanna wrote Manucharitam and was awarded title 'Andhra Pitamaha'. Tenalirama wrote Pandurnge Mahamatyam.
- He built a new city Naga lapuram, Hazara Temple and Vithalswamy Temple.
- During Sadashiva Raya's reign the real power laid in the hands of his minister Rama Raya. The Deccan Sultans except Berar joined hands to defeat Vijaynagar in the famous battle of Talikota or Rakshasa Tangadi in 1565. The Vijaynagar government now shifted to Penukonda and later to Chandragiri which was made capital by Venkat II.
- Administration: The King was central to the administration. He had a council of ministers to advise him.
- The Empire was divided into several provinces viz. Rajya, Mandala, Chavadi with subdivisions like Venthe, Nadu, Sima, Village, Sthala in Karnataka and Kottam, Parru, Nadu and Village in the Tamil portion.
- Each province was under a Nayak.
- The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar Khan who took the title of Alauddin Bahman Shah. He selected Gulbarga as its capital.
- Firoz Shah went to war with Vijaynagar Empire on three occasions and lost Raichur and Doab. He had a spat with Gesu Daraz, the Sufi saint of Gulbarga.
- Ahmad Shah Wall: He shifted his capital to Bidar. He waged a successful war against Vijaynagar and pushed back an invasion from Malwa.
- Humayun Shah: He appointed Mahmud Gawan as his prime minister. Gawan initiated many reforms and was the `de-fact ruler whose reign marks the peak-time of the Bahamainds'.
- With the death of Kalimullah, the last ruler, the dynasty came to an end.
- Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur was called Jagad Guru.