THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

Article I to Article 4 of the Constitution of India deals with the union and its territories: 

Article 1

Name and territory of the Union 

  • India, i.e., Bharat, shall be the Union of States. 
  • The names of states and the territories thereof shall be exactly as specified in the first schedule.
  • The territory of India shall be classified into three categories: 
    i. The territories of the states. 
    ii. The Union territories specified in the first schedule. 
    iii. Such other territories as may be acquired. 

Article 2 

Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new states on terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

Article 3 

Formation of new states and alteration of area, boundaries or names of existing states, therefore, Parliament by law may: 

  • form a new state by separation of a territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or parts of states or by uniting any territory to a part of any state 
  • increase the area of any state 
  • diminish the area of any state 
  • alter the boundaries of any state 
  • alter the name of any state 

Given that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or the name of any of the state for expressing its views within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired. 

Reorganisation of States 

  • At the time of Independence, India was divided into British India provinces and Indian princely states. 
  • Of the 552 princely states situated within the geographical boundaries of India, 549 joined India and the remaining 3 (Hyderabad, Junagarh, and Kashmir) joined India later. 
  • Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Home Minister in the National Provisional Government, and V. K. Menon (Home Secretary) through their persuasive and punitive measures, integrated a large number of states with the Indian Union.

Article 4 

Provides that any law referred in Article 2 or Article 3 should contain provisions for amendment of first and fourth schedule of the constitution without going through procedure as prescribed by Article 368.